A fire fighting pump is a centrifugal pump that pumps water to the fire suppression system at the fire scene. These fire pumps are designed to be transportable (for use in fire-fighting vehicles or as portable fire pumps) or fixed (for fire hydrants, sprinkler systems and other fire protection systems).
The pump configurations can vary depending on the type of fire suppression challenges your department faces: structural, high-rise, industrial, wildland, etc. Typically, these centrifugal fire fighting pumps are single-stage or two-stage.
When selecting a fire pump, the first step is to determine the required pump discharge pressure and flow at the fire scene. This requires knowing the suction and discharge hose diameters and lengths, as well as what types of nozzles are used to apply the firefighting agent. Once this information is known, the pump can be sized to meet the needs of the fire scene.
For example, a single-stage fire pump that will be used on a 25-story building will need to have at least 175 psi of discharge pressure. This is to ensure that the firefighting agent can be delivered to the fire floor without losing much of its deadhead pressure. This is also within the maximum operating pressure range of most hoses and fittings.
The next step is to select the appropriate driver, which is an electrical motor, diesel engine or steam turbine system. These systems take electrical power from the utility connection, generator or other approved source and spin a shaft that drives the pump. The motor/engine must be sized according to the requirements outlined in NFPA 20 to ensure it can meet the full horsepower demands of the fire pump system at churn, zero or rated flow, and 150% of rated capacity. fire fighting pump